2. Parents and teachers can bring children in contact with certain types of music or encourage them to engage in musical activities such as learning an instrument, which is associated with certain types of music, as well . Finally, the slope of the relationship between effects of music listening and the strength of MP was predicted by past functional experiences (slopes as outcomes; see Path D in Fig 1). Some of the more prominent findings refer to personality traits such as sensation seeking and the Big Five. Notably, the control variable playing an instrument turned out to have a significant influence on the relationship: Participants who played an instrument exhibited a stronger association between the effects of music listening and the strength of MP across different situations. Another paper, published in 2003 in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, reported that music can incite aggressive thoughts and feelings. Everyone easily admits liking particular musical styles, tunes, artists, or performers more than others. Some of the questions concerning the biological evidence of music’s hardwiring include 1) whether or not it is present in all cultures; 2) if the ability to process music appears early in life, i.e., it is found in infants; 3) if examples of music are found in the animal world; and 4) if there are specialized areas of the brain dedicated to it. For the other person, in contrast, there might be a weak correlation between goal attainment and MP: Whether the goals of this listener are attained through the music or not is barely reflected in the strength of preference for this music. Most of the participants (73%) were students; in terms of musical experience, 79% played an instrument and 33% sang, 21% were full-time professional musicians, and 16% were music students. When the same listeners are asked how effective listening to music actually was in attaining their goals the same pattern emerged: Goals related to self-awareness and arousal and mood regulation were attainable whereas goals related to social relatedness not as much. Dataset of the study (Level 1 variables). Specifically, they might have been much more mindful of the effects of music listening than they usually are. As North and Hargreaves (, p. 139) put it: “It would be surprising if people therefore did not use specific pieces of music to achieve very specific ends in very specific circumstances.” Many previous studies have analyzed people’s reasons for listening to music, yielding a multitude of different answers . Not least, on a very general level, MPs are informed by cultural traditions such as certain syntactical norms of music or certain affective associations and meanings . You are required to do 4 during the quarter. It has questions about mood/theme/instrumentation in an easy to adapt layout. Very slow tempo. Appreciative Listening -listening for pleasure and enjoyment, as when we listen to music, to a comedy routine, or to an entertaining speech 6. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy: Vol. The empirical data collected in the current study suggest that they should do so. With each section are questions the students could answer while listening. I dug through my files and uploaded this free Music Listening Worksheet in case anyone else is interested in using it with their students. To reduce potential sampling bias, nonstudent populations, older people, and professional musicians were actively invited to participate in the study. If listening to music does not help the listener attain goals it will not get reinforced and preference for the music will remain weak. During five … Second, the influence of the listener’s past functional experiences on the effects of music listening and the strength of MP was analyzed. Wrote the paper: TS. It is therefore highly important to understand the causes of music preference (MP) in detail. Of course, this conclusion leads to another two questions: (1) Given that listeners acquire their MP based on functional experiences with music, when in life does this happen? Building on previous studies [6,25,26,27] and taking into account the large amount of knowledge on the functions of music listening  and the theoretical approaches of Behne  and Lehmann , the following theoretical framework was derived: Over time, individuals learn that listening to music can help them attain specific goals in specific situations (past functional experiences). In other words, how much somebody is involved in music-listening activities overall very much depends on the intensity of positive outcomes through music-listening activities in the past. The Listening Guide: A How-To Approach on Ways to Promote Educational Democracy Christine Woodcock1 ... and innovative examples of creative, interdisciplinary uses of the LG. In total, participants reported 1,502 music-listening situations over the 10-day period. As a means of reinforcing the importance of critical listening, this study analyzes six speeches presented by President George W. Bush. This aspect of MP has been called style/genre preference . I tend to deem such prediction an almost unsolvable challenge. Listening Journal #7 Answer one of the following: Wendy Carlos' synthesized renditions of classical music brought synthesizers to mass popularity. Model fit was estimated by comparing the conditional model (containing all predictors and controls) with the unconditional model, resulting in a difference in deviance, which in HLM is inferentially tested using a χ2 statistic. Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. The Big Five personality traits have been shown to correlate with very general musical style features. One day she falls in love with a boy she meets there—a love story she will never forget. be conducted in conjunction with keeping . I looked at him in the eye but then his eyes wandered far. Welcome to the Internet Music Theory Database! Funding: The publication costs of this article were funded by the Chemnitz University of Technology (www.tu-chemnitz.de) in the funding programme Open Access Publishing. It encourages one to be aware of the present and let go of worries or anxieties, along with any physical or emotional reactions you may have to outside influences.. The rest are open observations on the sounds you experience. Lehmann  also reasoned that the functionality of music listening might be the most important reason for the development of MP. In the Western hemisphere, people deliberately listen to about 18 hours of music per week .With the availability of music on the Internet and the mobility of access to music via portable devices, music has become a ubiquitous companion of many individuals, especially adolescents. Conceived and designed the experiments: TS. Schäfer and Sedlmeier  demonstrated that the strength of listeners’ preference for their own “favorite music” varies considerably and the intensity of the functional use of music can explain a large part of that variance. That is, music listening can be a functional behavior. Sensation seekers—individuals with a heightened need for novel, complex, and risky experiences—tend to prefer more arousing and activating music [12,13,14]. Using this framework, two questions were explored and four specific predictions were tested (see also Fig 1). PLoS ONE 11(3): Parameters were estimated using the software HLM . There are an infinite number of ways social, cultural, and economic variables can interact and eventually bring an individual in contact with a certain style of music that can eventually prove useful. e0151634. In the words of my colleague Marc Weidenbaum listening journals help us move “ from source to sound, from sound to description, from description to meaning…. Results show that, first, listeners who had had more positive functional experiences with music in the past were more likely to attain their goals when they turned on their music. In consequence, a large part of the variance will remain unexplained. 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