The frame header includes a cyclical redundancy check (CRC) field that checks for errors as the frame travels over the network media. address. It accommodates many types of Layer 2 frames such as Ethernet and Frame Relay using AToM tunnels. Based on Media used, Data link Layer encapsulates IP Packets into HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay, or Ethernet frames, and since Data-Link Layer deals straight with the physical layer that might be different technology on each Hop, Data-Link Layer must use different types of protocols (Or be able to speak each cable language) to reframe/repackage IP packets across different types of cables while the IP packets are being routed from device to device. to define the media access processes that are performed by the hardware, to accept segments and package them into data units that are called packets, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 11. Answer: packets, network layer works with data with packets as every layer has its own functionalities. What is true concerning physical and logical topologies? sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame. It accepts Layer 3 packets and encapsulates them into frames. Which physical topology requires that every node is attached to every other node on the network? By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our, Understanding Data Link Layer Encapsulation, "Understanding Data Link Layer Encapsulation". Explanation: Devices connected to the Ethernet star topology connect to either a hub or a switch. Modules 1 – 3: Basic Network Connectivity and Communications Exam Answers, Modules 4 – 7: Ethernet Concepts Exam Answers, Modules 8 – 10: Communicating Between Networks Exam Answers, Modules 11 – 13: IP Addressing Exam Answers, Modules 14 – 15: Network Application Communications Exam Answers, Modules 16 – 17: Building and Securing a Small Network Exam Answers, Modules 1 – 4: Switching Concepts, VLANs, and InterVLAN Routing Exam Answers, Modules 5 – 6: Redundant Networks Exam Answers, Modules 7 – 9: Available and Reliable Networks Exam Answers, Modules 10 – 13: L2 Security and WLANs Exam Answers, Modules 14 – 16: Routing Concepts and Configuration Exam Answers, Modules 1 – 2: OSPF Concepts and Configuration Exam Answers, Modules 3 – 5: Network Security Exam Answers, Modules 9 – 12: Optimize, Monitor, and Troubleshoot Networks Exam Answers, Modules 13 – 14: Emerging Network Technologies Exam Answers, CCIE/CCNP 350-401 ENCOR Dumps Full Questions with VCE & PDF, CCNA 200-301 Dumps Full Questions – Exam Study Guide & Free. Encapsulation. Data link layer of PC0 will warp this IP packet in 802.3 header and trailer. to identify which network layer protocol is being used. Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is used with wired Ethernet technology to mediate media contention. The logical topology is always the same as the physical topology. Logical topologies refer to how a network transfers data between devices. Header is the supplemental data placed at the beginning of a … address source address data preamble (payload) CRC type 14. Explanation: Defining the media access processes that are performed by the hardware and providing data link layer addressing are functions of the MAC sublayer. MAC address. The IP interface has a unique IP address that identifies the VTEP device on the transport IP network known as the infrastructure VLAN. As shown in Figure 1-23, devices have Layer 3 IPv4 addresses, and Ethernet interfaces have Layer 2 data link addresses. Methods for transporting layer 2 packets over high-performance networks are described, for example, by Martini et al., in “Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet Frames Over IP/MPLS Networks” (IETF draft-ietf-ethernet-encap-00.txt, August, 2002), which is incorporated herein by reference. Explanation: Routers are responsible for encapsulating a frame with a proper format for the physical network media the routers connect. 3. HDLC encapsulates IP packets for layer 2 transport over serial interface links. the use of full-duplex capable Layer 2 switches. The Layer 3 switch encapsulates IP packets into Layer 2 packets, to send the IP packets on the network. Then the data-link layer passes the frame to the physical layer. IP addresses are used at the network layer, and TCP and UDP port numbers are used at the transport layer. Ethernet Protocol will be called for framing if the Network device uses UTP copper RJ45 cables. The Data-Link Layer will encapsulate the packets inside Data-Link Layer headers, and those are called frames. The router encapsulates the Layer 3 IP packet into the data portion of a Layer 2 data link frame appropriate for the exit interface. Through switch this frame will be received in Router R0. The source address of a Layer 2 packet is the MAC address of the Layer 3 switch interface sending the packet. IP will encapsulate the TCP segments into IP packets. What are two services performed by the data link layer of the OSI model? What identifier is used at the data link layer to uniquely identify an Ethernet device? hence packeting is network layer’s function. IP will use the data-link protocol of the interface through which that packets will be sent. Which is a function of the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer? Explanation: CSMA/CD is used by Ethernet networks. CSMA/CA is used by 802.11-based wireless networks. What are the two sublayers of the OSI model data link layer? De-encapsulates the frame Data-link layer protocols, such as PPP, format the IP datagram into a frame. Sequence numbers are fields in TCP headers. In other words, a data unit on an Ethernet link transports an Ethernet frame as its payload. 15. 2. Explanation: Ethernet frames are identified at the data link layer by their MAC addresses, which are unique to each NIC. 5. (Choose two.). Although CSMA/CD is still a feature of Ethernet, why is it no longer necessary? Re-encapsulates the packet into a new frame 5. IP addresses are used at the network layer, and TCP and UDP port numbers are used at the transport layer. The Ethernet frame has many fields, as shown in the figure. IP addresses are used at the network layer, and TCP and UDP port numbers are used at the transport layer. 13. Ethernet frames encapsulate IP packets, they don't need an additional layer of encapsulation to go back out over an Ethernet WAN link. The TCP/IP protocol stack describes a different model. What attribute of a NIC would place it at the data link layer of the OSI model? 5. The ISOC promotes the open development, evolution, and use of the Internet throughout the world. Explanation: Encapsulation is a function of the data link layer. While the TCP/IP model uses terms like segment, packet and frame to refer to a data packet defined by a particular layer, the OSI model uses a different term: protocol data unit (PDU). The VTEP device uses this IP address to encapsulate Ethernet frames and transmit the encapsulated packets to the transport network through the IP … An Ethernet frame that encapsulates an Internet Protocol (IP) packet, which itself encapsulates a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packet, which then encapsulates the actual data being transmitted over the network An Ethernet frame encapsulated in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frame for transmission over an ATM backbone A partial mesh topology can also be used where some, but not all, end points connect to one another. Re-encapsulates the packet into a new frame Priority ordering and token passing are not used (or not a method) for media access control. IP encapsulates the data into packets for transmission over an IP network. Router will de-encapsulate the frame in packet to find out the Layer 3 destination address. At last, the packets are encapsulated in frames. It accepts Layer 3 packets and encapsulates them into frames. Data link prepends its header with the source and destination MAC address after that it transmits the resulting frame. Frame Relay Protocol will be called for framing when the connection uses Frame Relay switching for WAN or internet connection. On a PC, this is most likely either ethernet or Wi-Fi, but it can be something else like PPP. 4. * It provides media access control and performs error detection. Explanation: Ethernet frames are identified at the data link layer by their MAC addresses, which are unique to each NIC. At each hop along the path, a router does the following: 10. The EIA is an international standards and trade alliance for electronics organizations, and is best known for its standards related to electrical wiring, connectors, and the 19-inch racks used to mount networking equipment. Subsequently, the frame acts as a series of binary signals placed on a physical structure (such as fiber, coax, hubs, coax, etc.) Ethernet encapsulates the IP packet into frames for layer-2 transmission. It encapsulates packets at the provider edge (PE) router, transports them over the backbone to the PE router on the other side of the cloud, removes the encapsulation, and transports them to the destination. 7. Data-link layer protocols, such as PPP, format the IP datagram into a frame. Examines the destination IP address of the IP packet to find the best path in the routing table. Once wrapped, it becomes frame. Physical topologies display the IP addressing scheme of each network. Ethernet frame structure •Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other network layer protocol packet) in Ethernet frame •Preamble: –7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011 –used to synchronize receiver, sender clock rates dest. Physical topologies are concerned with how a network transfers frames. * It monitors the Layer 2 communication by building a MAC address table. Explanation: The use of Layer 2 switches operating in full-duplex mode eliminates collisions, thereby eliminating the need for CSMA/CD. In practice this involves intermediary devices (e.g. Encapsulation type is based on Technology being used: 1. The lower layer encapsulates the higher layer’s data between a header (Data Link protocols also add a trailer). Q6. The encoding of a MAC address on a NIC places it at that layer. For Students, Network Pros, DevOps, Linux/Wordpress Lovers, and Entrepreneurs. address. A Layer 2 switch builds a MAC address table as part of its operation, but path determination is not the service that is provided by the data link layer. Which one of the following is not a function of network layer? Forwards the new frame appropriate to the medium of that segment of the physical network. Logical topologies show the way the network will transfer data between connected nodes. Physical layer of PC0 will put this frame in wire. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table is also known as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. Switches only look at the frames, and not at the packets. (A Layer 2 packet is also called a MAC layer packet or an Ethernet frame.) If the router finds a path to the destination, it encapsulates the Layer 3 packet into a new Layer 2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit interface. attached to the NIC. Explanation: The mesh topology provides high availability because every node is connected to all other nodes. Explanation: The data link layer of the OSI model is divided into two sublayers: the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer. 13. Data link layer encapsulates the incoming packet into an Ethernet frame. IP addresses are placed at the network layer. 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